Test of Naming Efficiency (TONE)

We have shown that rapid automatized naming of objects is sensitive to patient-reported word-finding difficulty in persons with multiple sclerosis, whereas traditional measures of verbal fluency (i.e., retrieving animal names) or visual confrontation naming (i.e., Boston Naming Test) are not sensitive. Patients are asked to name 40 objects (four rows of ten objects) as quickly as possible. The first evidence for this observation is described in Brandstadter et al. (Mult Scler 2020).

Clinicians and researchers interested in using the TONE should e-mail Dr. Sumowski ( for the materials.