Highlighted Publication

Here we applied cervical spinal stimulation in people undergoing clinically indicated cervical spine surgery to map arm and hand muscles responses. We hope this map can help guide cervical stimulation to improve arm and hand function.

Publication List


Wu YK, Wecht JM, Bloom OE, Panza GS, Harel NY. Remote Ischemic conditioning as an emerging tool to improve corticospinal transmission in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Curr Opin Neurol. 2023 Dec 1;36(6):523-530. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001216. Epub 2023 Sep 29. PMID: 37865833.

Jutzeler CR, Bourguignon L, Tong B, Ronca E, Bailey E, Harel NY, Geisler F, Ferguson AR, Kwon BK, Cragg JJ, Grassner L, Kramer JLK. Pharmacological management of acute spinal cord injury: a longitudinal multi-cohort observational study. Sci Rep. 2023 Apr 3;13(1):5434. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-31773-8. PMID: 37012257; PMCID: PMC10070428.

Skiadopoulos A, Famodimu GO, Solomon SK, Agarwal P, Harel NY,  Knikou M. Priming locomotor training with transspinal stimulation in people with spinal cord injury: study protocol of a randomized clinical trial. Trials. 2023 Feb 25;24(1):145. doi: 10.1186/s13063-023-07193-4. PMID: 36841773.

McIntosh JR, Joiner EF, Goldberg JL, Murray LM, Yasin B, Mendiratta A, Karceski SC, Thuet E, Modik O, Shelkov E, Lombardi JM, Sardar ZM, Lehman RA, Mandigo C, Riew KD MD, Harel NY, Virk MS, Carmel JB. Intraoperative electrical stimulation of the human dorsal spinal cord reveals a map of arm and hand muscle responses. J Neurophysiol. 2023 Jan 1. doi: 10.1152/jn.00235.2022. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36417309.


Savage WM, Harel NY. Reaching a Tipping Point for Neurorehabilitation Research: Obstacles and Opportunities in Trial Design, Description, and Pooled Analysis. Reaching a Tipping Point for Neurorehabilitation Research: Obstacles and Opportunities in Trial Design, Description, and Pooled Analysis. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2022 Nov;36(10-11):659-665. doi: 10.1177/15459683221124112. Epub 2022 Sep 13. PMID: 36113101.

Fry A, Chan HW, Harel NY, Spielman LA, Escalon MX, Putrino DF. Evaluating the clinical benefit of brain-computer interfaces for control of a personal computer. J Neural Eng. 2022 Apr 11;19(2). doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/ac60ca. PMID: 35325875.

Consunji R, Alinier G, Fathi Abeid A, Murray LM, Fildes B. Recommendations to improve young and novice driver safety in the State of Qatar. Journal of Emergency Medicine, Trauma and Acute Care 2022 Mar; 2022(2). doi:

Nataraj R, Sanford S, Liu M, Harel NY. Hand dominance in the performance and perceptions of virtual reach control. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2022. 223:103494. doi: 10.1016/J.ACTPSY.2022.103494.


Wecht JR, Savage WM, Famodimu GO, Mendez GA, Levine JM, Maher MT, Weir JP, Wecht JM, Carmel JB, Wu YK, Harel NY. Posteroanterior Cervical Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation: Interactions with Cortical and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation. J Clin Med 2021 Nov 15; 10(22): 5304.

Sfreddo HJ, Wecht JR, Alsalman OA, Wu YK, Harel NY. Duration and reliability of the silent period in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2021 Aug;59(8):885-893. doi: 10.1038/s41393-021-00649-x. Epub 2021 Jun 7. PMID: 34099882.

Pulverenti TS, Zaaya M, Grabowski M, Grabowski E, Islam MA, Li J, Murray LM, Knikou M. Neurophysiological Changes After Paired Brain and Spinal Cord Stimulation Coupled With Locomotor Training in Human Spinal Cord Injury. Front Neurol. 2021 May 10;12:627975. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2021.627975. PMID: 34040572; PMCID: PMC8141587.

Boakye M, Ugiliweneza B, Madrigal F, Mesbah S, Ovechkin A, Angeli C, Bloom O, Wecht JW, Ditterline B, Harel NY, Kirshblum S, Forrest G, Wu S, Harkema S, Guest J. Clinical Trial Designs for Neuromodulation in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Using Epidural Stimulation. Neuromodulation. 2021 Apr;24(3):405-415. doi: 10.1111/ner.13381. Epub 2021 Apr 1. PMID: 33794042.

Walsh KA, Sanford SP, Collins BD, Harel NY, Nataraj R. Performance Potential of Classical Machine Learning and Deep Learning Classifiers for Isometric Upper-body Myoelectric Control of Direction in Virtual Reality with Reduced Muscle Inputs. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. 2021 Apr; Vol 66 102487.

Knepley KD, Mao JZ, Wieczorek P, Okoye FO, Jain AP, Harel NY. Impact of Telerehabilitation for Stroke-Related Deficits. Telemed J E Health. 2020;10.1089/tmj.2020.0019. doi:10.1089/tmj.2020.0019Clin Neurophysiol. 2020;131(2):451-460. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2019.11.056

Tsai CY, Asselin PK, Hong E, Knezevic S, Kornfeld SD, Harel NY, Spungen AM. Exoskeletal-assisted walking may improve seated balance in persons with chronic spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2021 Mar 12;7(1):20. doi: 10.1038/s41394-021-00384-8. PMID: 33712561; PMCID: PMC7955046.

Wu YK, Harel NY, Wecht JM and Bloom OE. Effects of Remote Ischemic Conditioning on Hand Engagement in individuals with Spinal cord Injury (RICHES): protocol for a pilot crossover study. F1000Research 2021, 10:464.

Liu M, Wilder S, Sanford S, Saleh S, Harel NY, Nataraj R. Training with Agency-Inspired Feedback from an Instrumented Glove to Improve Functional Grasp Performance. Sensors (Basel). 2021 Feb 7;21(4):1173. doi: 10.3390/s21041173. PMID: 33562342; PMCID: PMC7915039.



Wang S, Wecht JM, Legg Ditterline B, Ugiliweneza B, Maher MT, Lombard AT, Aslan SC, Ovechkin AV, Bethke B, Gunter JTH, Harkema SJ. Heart rate and blood pressure response improve the prediction of orthostatic cardiovascular dysregulation in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. Physiol Rep. 2020 Oct;8(20):e14617. doi: 10.14814/phy2.14617

Wecht JM, Harel NY, Guest J, Kirshblum SC, Forrest GF, Bloom O, Ovechkin AV, Harkema S. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Spinal Cord Injury: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management. [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 9]. Semin Neurol. 2020;10.1055/s-0040-1713885. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1713885

Chun A, Asselin PK, Knezevic S, Kornfeld S, Bauman WA, Korsten MA, Harel NY, Huang V, Spungen AM. Changes in bowel function following exoskeletal-assisted walking in persons with spinal cord injury: an observational pilot study. Spinal Cord. 2020;58(4):459-466. doi:10.1038/s41393-019-0392-z

Brandstadter R, Ayeni O, Krieger SC, Harel NY, Escalon MX, Sand IK, Leavitt VM, Fabian MT, Buyukturkoglu K, Klineova S, Riley CS, Lublin FD, Miller AE, Sumowski JF. Detection of subtle gait disturbance and future fall risk in early multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2020;94(13):e1395-e1406. doi:10.1212/WNL.000000000000893

Wu YK, Levine JM, Wecht JR, Maher MTLiMonta JM, Saeed S, Santiago TM, Bailey E, Kastuar S, Guber KS, Yung L, Weir JP, Carmel JB, Harel NY. Posteroanterior cervical transcutaneous spinal stimulation targets ventral and dorsal nerve roots. Clin Neurophysiol. 2020;131(2):451-460. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2019.11.056



Pulverenti TS, Islam MA, Alsalman O, Murray LM, Harel NY, Knikou M. Transspinal stimulation decreases corticospinal excitability and alters the function of spinal locomotor networks. J Neurophysiol. 2019;122(6):2331-2343. doi:10.1152/jn.00554.2019

Knikou M, Murray LM. Repeated transspinal stimulation decreases soleus H-reflex excitability and restores spinal inhibition in human spinal cord injury. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0223135. Published 2019 Sep 26. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0223135

Murray LM, Knikou M. Repeated cathodal transspinal pulse and direct current stimulation modulate cortical and corticospinal excitability differently in healthy humans. Exp Brain Res. 2019;237(7):1841-1852. doi:10.1007/s00221-019-05559-2

Murray LM, Knikou M. Transspinal stimulation increases motoneuron output of multiple segments in human spinal cord injury. PLoS One. 2019;14(3):e0213696. Published 2019 Mar 7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213696

Harel NY. Untethering Idea Generation From Protocol Execution in Neurorehabilitation Research. JAMA Neurol. 2019 Feb 18;. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.4918. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30776062.

Murray LM, Islam MA, Knikou M. Cortical and Subcortical Contributions to Neuroplasticity after Repetitive Transspinal Stimulation in Humans. Neural Plast. 2019;2019:4750768. Published 2019 Feb 7. doi:10.1155/2019/4750768

Vanneste S, Alsalman O, De Ridder D. Top-down and Bottom-up Regulated Auditory Phantom Perception. J Neurosci. 2019;39(2):364-378. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0966-18.2018


Knikou M, Murray LM. Neural interactions between transspinal evoked potentials and muscle spindle afferents in humans. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2018;43:174-183. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2018.10.005

Martinez SA, Nguyen ND, Bailey E, Doyle-Green D, Hauser HA, Handrakis JP, Knezevic S, Marett C, Weinman J, Romero AF, Santiago TM, Yang AH, Yung L, Asselin PK, Weir JP, Kornfeld SD, Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Harel NY. Multimodal cortical and subcortical exercise compared with treadmill training for spinal cord injury. PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0202130. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202130. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 30092092; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6084979.

Theriault ER, Huang V, Whiteneck G, Dijkers MP, Harel NY. Antispasmodic medications may be associated with reduced recovery during inpatient rehabilitation after traumatic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2018 Jan;41(1):63-71. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2016.1245010. Epub 2016 Nov 14. PubMed PMID: 27841095; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5810808.

Vanneste S, Alsalman O, De Ridder D. COMT and the neurogenetic architecture of hearing loss induced tinnitus. Hear Res. 2018;365:1-15. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2018.05.020

Palumbo DB, Alsalman O, De Ridder D, Song JJ, Vanneste S. Misophonia and Potential Underlying Mechanisms: A Perspective. Front Psychol. 2018;9:953. Published 2018 Jun 29. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00953

Côté MP, Murray LM, Knikou M. Spinal Control of Locomotion: Individual Neurons, Their Circuits and Functions. Front Physiol. 2018;9:784. Published 2018 Jun 25. doi:10.3389/fphys.2018.00784

Murray LM, Tahayori B, Knikou M. Transspinal Direct Current Stimulation Produces Persistent Plasticity in Human Motor Pathways. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):717. Published 2018 Jan 15. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-18872-z


Murray LM, Knikou M. Remodeling Brain Activity by Repetitive Cervicothoracic Transspinal Stimulation after Human Spinal Cord Injury. Front Neurol. 2017;8:50. Published 2017 Feb 20. doi:10.3389/fneur.2017.00050

Wu YK, Liu HY, Kelleher A, Pearlman J, Ding D, Cooper RA. Power seat function usage and wheelchair discomfort for power wheelchair users. J Spinal Cord Med. 2017;40(1):62-69. doi:10.1080/10790268.2016.1192360


Harel NY, Carmel JB. Paired Stimulation to Promote Lasting Augmentation of Corticospinal Circuits. Neural Plast.2016;2016:7043767. doi: 10.1155/2016/7043767. Epub 2016 Oct 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 27800189; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5075312.

Alsalman OA, Tucker D, Vanneste S. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:338. Published 2016 Jul 20. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00338

Wu YK, Liu HY, Kelleher A, Pearlman J, Cooper RA. Evaluating the usability of a smartphone virtual seating coach application for powered wheelchair users. Med Eng Phys. 2016;38(6):569-575. doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2016.03.001

Maher M, Figueroa M. The effects of simulated altitude training on aerobic capacity and function. KMUTNB: International Journal of Applied Science and Technology (KMUTNB Int J Appl Sci Technol). 6.

Chen CH, Wu YK, Chan MS, Shih Y, Shiang TY. The force output of handle and pedal in different bicycle-riding postures. Res Sports Med. 2016;24(1):54-66. doi:10.1080/15438627.2015.1126276

Alsalman O, Ost J, Vanspauwen R, Blaivie C, De Ridder D, Vanneste S. The Neural Correlates of Chronic Symptoms of Vertigo Proneness in Humans. PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0152309. Published 2016 Apr 18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152309


Harel NY, Martinez SA, Knezevic S, Asselin PK, Spungen AM. Acute changes in soleus H-reflex facilitation and central motor conduction after targeted physical exercises. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2015 Jun;25(3):438-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2015.02.009. Epub 2015 Mar 2. PubMed PMID: 25771437.


Kelley BJ, Harel NY, Kim CY, Papademetris X, Coman D, Wang X, Hasan O, Kaufman A, Globinsky R, Staib LH, Cafferty WB, Hyder F, Strittmatter SM. Diffusion tensor imaging as a predictor of locomotor function after experimental spinal cord injury and recovery. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Aug 1;31(15):1362-73. doi: 10.1089/neu.2013.3238. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PubMed PMID: 24779685; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4120934.

Murray LM, Edwards DJ, Ruffini G, et al. Intensity dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on corticospinal excitability in chronic spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(4 Suppl):S114-S121. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.11.004


Harel NY, Yigitkanli K, Fu Y, Cafferty WB, Strittmatter SM. Multimodal exercises simultaneously stimulating cortical and brainstem pathways after unilateral corticospinal lesion. Brain Res. 2013 Nov 13;1538:17-25. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.07.012. Epub 2013 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 24055330; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3873870.

Fineberg DB, Asselin P, Harel NY, Agranova-Breyter I, Kornfeld SD, Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Vertical ground reaction force-based analysis of powered exoskeleton-assisted walking in persons with motor-complete paraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013 Jul;36(4):313-21. doi: 10.1179/2045772313Y.0000000126. PubMed PMID: 23820147; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3758528.

Cortes M, Elder J, Rykman A, Murray L, Avedissian M, Stampas A, Thickbroom GW, Pascual-Leone A, Krebs HI, Valls-Sole J, Edwards DJ. Improved motor performance in chronic spinal cord injury following upper-limb robotic training. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013;33(1):57-65. doi:10.3233/NRE-130928

Harel NY. Funding: Some sense in overlapping grants. Nature. 2013 Mar 14;495(7440):174. doi: 10.1038/495174b. PubMed PMID: 23486049.

Harel NY, Asselin PK, Fineberg DB, Pisano TJ, Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Adaptation of computerized posturography to assess seated balance in persons with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013 Mar;36(2):127-33. doi: 10.1179/2045772312Y.0000000053. PubMed PMID: 23809527; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3595960.


Harel NY, Tseng BY. Cerebral perfusion in acute stroke prognostication: go with the flow, or know with the quo?. Neurology. 2012 Jun 5;78(23):1811-2. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318258f867. Epub 2012 May 9. PubMed PMID: 22573632.


Blondin NA, Vortmeyer AO, Harel NY. Paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone mimicking limbic encephalitis. Arch Neurol. 2011 Dec;68(12):1591-4. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2011.876. PubMed PMID: 22159058.

Wang X, Duffy P, McGee AW, Hasan O, Gould G, Tu N, Harel NY, Huang Y, Carson RE, Weinzimmer D, Ropchan J, Benowitz LI, Cafferty WB, Strittmatter SM. Recovery from chronic spinal cord contusion after Nogo receptor intervention. Ann Neurol. 2011 Nov;70(5):805-21. doi: 10.1002/ana.22527. PubMed PMID: 22162062; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3238798.

Wang HK, Lin KH, Wu YK, Chi SC, Shih TT, Huang YC. Evoked spinal reflexes and force development in elite athletes with middle-portion Achilles tendinopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41(10):785-794. doi:10.2519/jospt.2011.3564


Harel NY, Song KH, Tang X, Strittmatter SM. Nogo receptor deletion and multimodal exercise improve distinct aspects of recovery in cervical spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2010 Nov;27(11):2055-66. doi: 10.1089/neu.2010.1491. PubMed PMID: 20809785; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2978056.

Wu YK, Lien YH, Lin KH, Shih TT, Wang TG, Wang HK. Relationships between three potentiation effects of plyometric training and performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(1):e80-e86. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00908.x


Yang YS, Harel NY, Strittmatter SM. Reticulon-4A (Nogo-A) redistributes protein disulfide isomerase to protect mice from SOD1-dependent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2009 Nov 4;29(44):13850-9. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2312-09.2009. PubMed PMID: 19889996; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2797811.

Owuor K, Harel NY, Englot DJ, Hisama F, Blumenfeld H, Strittmatter SM. LGI1-associated epilepsy through altered ADAM23-dependent neuronal morphology. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009 Dec;42(4):448-57. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2009.09.008. Epub 2009 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 19796686; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2783222.

Harel NY, Cudkowicz ME, Brown RH, Strittmatter SM. Serum Nogo-A levels are not elevated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Biomarkers. 2009 Sep;14(6):414-7. doi: 10.1080/13547500903056051. PubMed PMID: 19548774; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2842187.

Wang HK, Wu YK, Lin KH, Shiang TY. Noninvasive analysis of fascicle curvature and mechanical hardness in calf muscle during contraction and relaxation. Man Ther. 2009;14(3):264-269. doi:10.1016/j.math.2008.02.011


Harel NY. Re: What is next in ALS clinical trials?. Neurology. 2008 Apr 15;70(16):1365-6; author reply 1365-6. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000313562.69443.63. PubMed PMID: 18413594.

Harel NY. Call for a centralized grant proposal repository. Nature. 2008 Mar 27;452(7186):409. doi: 10.1038/452409b. PubMed PMID: 18368097.

Harel NY, Strittmatter SM. Functional MRI and other non-invasive imaging technologies: providing visual biomarkers for spinal cord structure and function after injury. Exp Neurol. 2008 Jun;211(2):324-8. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.02.017. Epub 2008 Mar 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 18396280; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2442770.


Harel NY, Strittmatter SM. Nogo-A marks motor neuron disease. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jul;62(1):1-2. doi: 10.1002/ana.21145. PubMed PMID: 17474106; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2323439.

Harel NY, Yang YS, Strittmatter SM, Kocsis JD, Waxman SG. The dawn of molecular and cellular therapies for traumatic spinal cord injury. In: Molecular Neurology. 1 ed. Waxman SG, editor. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.; 2007. Chapter 14; p.207-220.


Park JH, Widi GA, Gimbel DA, Harel NY, Lee DH, Strittmatter SM. Subcutaneous Nogo receptor removes brain amyloid-beta and improves spatial memory in Alzheimer’s transgenic mice. J Neurosci. 2006 Dec 20;26(51):13279-86. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4504-06.2006. PubMed PMID: 17182778; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2856604.

Harel NY, Strittmatter SM. Can regenerating axons recapitulate developmental guidance during recovery from spinal cord injury?. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 Aug;7(8):603-16. doi: 10.1038/nrn1957. Review. PubMed PMID: 16858389; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2288666.


Liberato B, Harel NY, Krakauer JW. Bilateral top of carotid occlusion presenting as basilar thrombosis. Cerebrovasc Dis.2005;19(5):343-4. doi: 10.1159/000085129. Epub 2004 May 28. PubMed PMID: 15832024.

Barrasa MI, Harel NY, Alwine JC. The phosphorylation status of the serine-rich region of the human cytomegalovirus 86-kilodalton major immediate-early protein IE2/IEP86 affects temporal viral gene expression. J Virol. 2005 Feb;79(3):1428-37. doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.3.1428-1437.2005. PubMed PMID: 15650169; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC544087.


Schumacher HC, Meyers PM, Yavagal DR, Harel NY, Elkind MS, Mohr JP, Pile-Spellman J. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy of an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA for acute cardioembolic stroke. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2003 May-Jun;26(3):305-8. PubMed PMID: 14562985.

Barrasa MI, Harel N, Yu Y, Alwine JC. Strain variations in single amino acids of the 86-kilodalton human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early protein (IE2) affect its functional and biochemical properties: implications of dynamic protein conformation. J Virol. 2003 Apr;77(8):4760-72. doi: 10.1128/jvi.77.8.4760-4772.2003. PubMed PMID: 12663783; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC152111.


Wolfe JH, Sands MS, Harel N, Weil MA, Parente MK, Polesky AC, Reilly JJ, Hasson C, Weimelt S, Haskins ME. Gene transfer of low levels of beta-glucuronidase corrects hepatic lysosomal storage in a large animal model of mucopolysaccharidosis VII. Mol Ther. 2000 Dec;2(6):552-61. doi: 10.1006/mthe.2000.0202. PubMed PMID: 11124056.


Harel NY, Alwine JC. Phosphorylation of the human cytomegalovirus 86-kilodalton immediate-early protein IE2. J Virol.1998 Jul;72(7):5481-92. PubMed PMID: 9621004; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC110188.


Lukac DM, Harel NY, Tanese N, Alwine JC. TAF-like functions of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early proteins. J Virol. 1997 Oct;71(10):7227-39. PubMed PMID: 9311796; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC192063.