Laboratory of Brain and Data Sciences

Charney Laboratory

Brain and Data Sciences Lab

Charney Laboratory



The Brain and Data Sciences Lab is known for using multiple types of genomic data to dissect the clinical features of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, developing a novel framework for human brain research with the Living Brain Project, and advocating for the rapid translation of genomic findings to early-phase clinical trials of experimental therapeutics.

The Living Brain Project, a multiscale, data-driven investigation of the human brain wherein a single living population is being studied using all of the tools available for human-subject neuroscience, including the tools of molecular and cellular neurobiology that to date have been applied primarily in the post-mortem setting.

The lab is also a leader of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Targeted Schizophrenia Sequencing Study, a sequencing study of over 20,000 individuals that, when combined with existing data, will constitute the largest assessment of the role of rare damaging genetic variants to the risk of schizophrenia. It also leads the Mount Sinai site of the PsychEMERGE consortium, which is a large coordinated effort amongst the largest academic biobanks in the United States to integrate electronic medical records and genetics to better elucidate risk factors for mental illness.

Funding: National Institute of Aging, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Michael J. Fox Foundation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and Harvard University

Contact Us

Brain & Data Sciences Lab
Alexander Charney, MD, PhD

Icahn School of Medicine
1425 Madison Avenue,
New York, NY 10029

Recent Publications


  • PREPRINT: Liharska LE, Park YJ, Ziafat K, et al. A study of gene expression in the living human brain. Preprint. medRxiv. 2023;2023.04.21.23288916. Published 2023 Aug 1. doi:10.1101/2023.04.21.23288916
  • Thompson, R.C., Simons, N.W., Wilkins, L. et al. Molecular states during acute COVID-19 reveal distinct etiologies of long-term sequelaeNat Med 29, 236–246 (2023).
  • Liu, D., Meyer, D., Fennessy, B. et al. Schizophrenia risk conferred by rare protein-truncating variants is conserved across diverse human populations. Nat Genet 55, 369–376 (2023).
  • Landi I, Kaji DA, Cotter L, et al. Prognostic value of polygenic risk scores for adults with psychosis. Nat Med. 2021;27(9):1576-1581. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01475-7
  • Mullins N, Forstner AJ, O’Connell KS, et al. Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology. Nat Genet. 2021;53(6):817-829. doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00857-4
  • Charney, A.W., Simons, N.W., Mouskas, K. et al. Sampling the host response to SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals under siege. Nat Med 26, 1157–1158 (2020).

Current Projects

The Living Brain Project

To understand the human brain, scientists use clinical observation, neuropharmacology, neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neuromodulation and molecular-cellular neuroscience. However, applications of molecular-cellular neuroscience have traditionally been limited to post-mortem specimens or cultured neural cells, whereas the other approaches require interactive living subjects. As a result, it is rare that a single cohort is studied using the full human subject neuroscience toolkit. The biological foundations of neuropsychiatric traits therefore remain largely unknown, and understanding the inner workings of the human brain continues to be one of the greatest scientific challenges.

The Living Brain Project is a multiscale, data-driven investigation of the human brain wherein a single living population is being studied using all of the tools available for human-subject neuroscience. Led by Drs. Alexander Charney and Brian Kopell, this study will enroll 500 men and women from young to old age receiving deep brain stimulation (DBS) over a 10-year period. Batteries of neuropsychological testing will survey all domains of cognition and mental health, while electronic medical records will create a high-resolution digital record of the health of each participant. Brain structure and function will be recorded through multi-modal neuroimaging, and during each of two DBS electrode implantation surgeries (one per hemisphere) specimens will be obtained from the participant’s brain, skin and blood for cutting-edge multiomic analyses. With this unique cohort, the Living Brain Project aims to discover how interactions between the various levels of neurobiology, neurophysiology and neuroanatomy assessed give rise not only to the chronic traits that have been probed in post-mortem studies (e.g., depression, dementia), but also acute states that can only be assessed in a living cohort (e.g., sadness, working memory).

Multimodal Neuroimaging Techniques in the Living Brain

The multimodal neuroimaging techniques, including but not limited to functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) facilitate the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and the development of new medications. Among the modalities, the structural MRI and DTI are widely utilized to investigate the gray matter and white matter anatomical anomalies for neurodegenerative disorders which may contribute to the cognitive deficiency in psychiatric disorders. Our project applies both structural MRI and DTI modalities to identify the microstructural features of gray matter and white matter to patients with Parkinson’s disease. The features include cortical thickness, cortical surface area, subcortical volume and the volume, average length, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, mean diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy of white matter fiber tracts, as well as topological features of anatomical network. The integration of neuroimaging, multiomics and neuropsychiatric phenotyping could contribute to identify the molecular mechanism that influence brain structure and function.

A population-driven family-based genetic study of schizophrenia

Despite advancements in our knowledge of the polygenic genetic architecture of schizophrenia, there have been no new treatments developed for SCZ in decades. This project builds upon work from two landmark genetic studies of SCZ that recently established that some SCZ cases are caused by a rare protein-truncating variant (PTV) in one of 12 genes. This project entails implementing a variant annotation pipeline to identify individuals in the Mount Sinai BioMe Biobank, an ancestrally diverse biobank with a large WES dataset, affected by rare PTVs in the 12 known causal SCZ genes. By mining WES data, identified carriers are re-contacted to undergo comprehensive neuropsychiatric assessments and biospecimen collection. This project also involves experiments with neural cells from affected carriers to attempt to determine how the rare PTV causes disease and why there may be clinical variability between family members with the same causal variant. Population-driven family-based genetic studies such as the one presented here are a new way to investigate the mechanisms of disease in individual patients. Our ultimate goal is to develop experimental therapeutics, such as gene-therapies, for patients with SCZ and related disorders.

This project is housed in the Blau Center. 

Mount Sinai Million

The current lack of diversity in genomic research data is hindering what we can learn about health and potential treatments in our global population. By enhancing the diversity of people participating in genomic research, we can advance our knowledge and discovery of human genetics for all populations. To that end, we are spearheading the effort to carry out the genetic sequencing of one million Mount Sinai patients within the next five years. This initiative, one of the largest such sequencing projects of its kind, will integrate health and research data at Mount Sinai to promote discoveries that will directly benefit our patient population. Called the Mount Sinai Million Health Discoveries Program, this initiative is seen as a model for building genetics into the real world of clinical care. The wealth of knowledge derived directly from one of the world’s most diverse patient populations, as available within a massive New York City health system, will improve our understanding about the connection between genetics and disease. This program will potentially provide insights into every disease area and will have a tremendous impact on the future of science and medicine. We anticipate a wide range of critical discoveries, from novel therapeutics to treat, cure, and ultimately prevent disease to a newfound understanding of what health itself means at the genetic level. Importantly, because of the ethnic and racial diversity of Mount Sinai’s patients, Mount Sinai Million will also dramatically expand our knowledge of the biological basis of all common diseases that affect people across the globe. The Mount Sinai Million program will mark the first time a health system of this size and diversity has integrated genomic profiling into routine clinical decision-making to understand the impact of genetic variations on human health and disease. 


WeSeq is a NIMH funded, Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) affiliated study with the goal of generating WES and genotype by sequencing data on 130,000 cases of severe mental illness and 20,000 controls. Most large-scale genetic studies to date have been made up of individuals of European ancestry. Our study focuses on being ancestrally diverse, transdiagnostic, inclusive of sub-phenotypes of patients seen in clinical psychiatry, and integrating ultra-rare exonic, rare copy number, and common variation. Our goal is to establish an equitable and efficient pipeline for all collaborators to get their samples sequenced so that real discoveries can be made to improve patient outcomes.


Our PGC3 project is a data-driven targeted sequencing approach to discovering rare single-nucleotide variants (rSNV) in genes with a causal role in schizophrenia (SCZ). By harnessing the corpus of SCZ genetic data currently available, our group has designed a novel, data-driven approach to targeted sequencing that allows us to increase the power for causal gene discovery at a fraction of the cost of whole exome sequencing, focusing only on genes with a high prior probability of having excess rare loss-of-function variants in SCZ. This data will be meta-analyzed with all other SCZ sequencing datasets, producing the largest sequencing study of SCZ to date and maximizing power to identify additional risk genes. This approach offers the promise to identify biologically, clinically and therapeutically meaningful information from the growing resource of available genetic information.

Identifying the genetic targets of pro- and antipsychotic drugs

Is there an overlap between the genes that increase one’s risk of experiencing psychosis and the targets of drugs that cause and treat psychosis? My project studies the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia and how we might identify potential genetic targets to develop drugs to treat patients with mental illness. We look at both rare and common variants implicated in schizophrenia and pair those variants with known genetic targets of various pro- and antipsychotic drugs.

Heritability of Gene Expression in the Brain

By using large datasets of gene expression in the brain, we intend to uncover mechanisms underlying the heritability of gene expression. This includes evaluating if the genetic architecture of expression is differentially dominated by cis or trans regulation. This study is to our knowledge amongst the largest studies to date of the genetic architecture of gene expression traits in the human brain. We hope this will contribute to the field’s understanding of the mechanisms underlying polygenicity, especially in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

COVID-19 BioBank

The COVID-19 Biorepository Research Program is a multi-center research initiative that aimed to characterize the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 through the collection of blood specimens from covid-positive pediatric and adult inpatients throughout the Mount Sinai Health System. During the height of the first surge of COVID-19 in New York City, the Charney lab was part of a research team of over 100 individuals redeployed to the frontlines. Although recruitment is no longer active, research teams across the health system still use our specimens and data to learn more about the virus and therapeutic development.


RECOVER is a national, multi-site study that aims to characterize PASC (post-acute sequelae of COVID-19, or long-covid). This is a national, NIH-funded longitudinal study that began recruiting subjects in December of 2021, of which Mount Sinai is a recruitment site. Biospecimen collection and clinical phenotyping is performed on patients suffering from PASC, with the ultimate goal of understanding its pathogenesis and also developing clinical trials for potential treatments. 

Genome Wide Association Studies of Depression

This project involves the use of Genome-Wide Association Studies to investigate genes involved with depression etiology. By comparing the genotype between depressed patients and healthy controls, the hope is to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms that may contribute to depression.

Meet Our Team

Alex Charney | Associate Professor |

Alexander Charney, MD, PhD is an Associate Professor at the Icahn School of Medicine with primary appointments in the Departments of Psychiatry and Genetics & Genomic Sciences, as well as secondary appointments in the Departments of Neuroscience and Neurosurgery. He is also the Director of the Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine and the Jeff and Lisa Blau Adolescent Consultation Center for Resilience and Treatment (Blau Center) at Sinai.

Alex received his MD and PhD under the mentorship of Pamela Sklar, MD, PhD, and Eric Schadt, PhD, two of the world’s foremost experts on large-scale genomics and multiscale biology. He has been the lead data scientist on some of the largest genetic studies ever conducted on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, including genome-wide association studies, copy number variant studies, and rare sequencing variant studies. Currently, he leads several of the largest studies in the field of psychiatric genomics and has established a unique approach to human brain research as the founder and primary investigator of the Living Brain Project. As a physician-scientist specializing in the neurobiology of severe mental illness, his primary goal is to translate genomic discoveries to experimental therapeutics.

Alex likes to kayak, work out, and play the drums and guitar!

Isotta Landi | Assistant Professor

Isotta joined the lab in September 2020 as a Postdoctoral Fellow, and joined faculty in 2022. Originally from Italy, she received her B.Sc. in Mathematics at the University of Pisa and M.Sc in Mathematics at the University of Trento (Italy). She then earned her PhD in Computational Psychology (University of Trento and Bruno Kessler Foundation) and researched unsupervised machine learning and natural language processing methods to disentangle complex disorders, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, from clinical and behavioral data. In the lab, her work focuses on the application of machine learning models to predict clinical outcomes in psychiatry. Her research also includes the implementation of natural language processing methods for clinical concept and temporal relation extraction from psychiatric notes, towards precision medicine.

Outside of work, Isotta enjoys coffee, climbing, and spending time in the mountains.

Eric Vornholt | Assistant Professor |

Eric Vornholt, PhD, joined the lab in January 2021 after earning his doctorate from the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics at Virginia Commonwealth University. While at VCU, Eric’s research centered on profiling the transcriptional landscape of postmortem brain tissue from chronic alcohol abusers. Now a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Charney Lab, Eric serves as one of the lead investigators for the Living Brain Project where he utilizes his experience assessing differential gene expression to perform multi-omic comparison analyses of postmortem vs. living brain tissue. Long-term, Eric plans to continue studying the biological signatures of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders in order to better understand how genetic and environmental factors impact behavior.

Outside of work, Eric is a foodie who enjoys writing music, playing board/video games, and socializing with friends.

Nicole Bussola | Post-Doctoral Fellow |

Nicole joined the lab as a Postdoctoral Fellow in June 2023. She obtained her B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Mathematics – Mathematical Sciences curriculum – at the University of Trento, Italy. She then earned her PhD in Biomolecular Sciences – Expertus in Computational Biology from the Center for Integrative Biology, University of Trento, with a joint scholarship from the Bruno Kessler Foundation. Her PhD research focused on AI algorithms for multimodal data in Precision Medicine, specifically on predictive models using high-throughput omics and bioimaging data to improve patient stratification for diagnostic and prognostic endpoints. Nicole also possesses practical experience as a Data Scientist with an AI service company in Rovereto, Italy, where she supervised AI projects related to implement software solutions for precision medicine. In the Charney lab, Nicole contributes to the Living Brain Project by analyzing gene expression data to identify blood-based brain biomarkers.

Carolina Cappi | Post-Doctoral Fellow |

Carolina joined the lab as a Postdoctoral Fellow in December 2023. She completed her PhD at the University of São Paulo (USP), which included an internship under Dr. Mathew State at Yale University, resulting in two pioneering studies on the role of rare and de novo genomic variants in the risk of OCD. Carolina possesses substantial experience in the data collection of mental illnesses. Currently, she leads the Obsessive-Compulsive Working Group (GTTOC) in Brazil, which is dedicated to research and clinical practice. The GTTOC’s mission is to investigate the genetics of OCD within families across the diverse states of Brazil, which are characterized by varied migrations and ethnicities. In 2023, Carolina received the prestigious K99/R00 award from NIMH to study common and rare genomic variants in psychiatric disorders, including in diverse populations.

Outside work, Carolina enjoys walking her dog, exploring New York City’s culinary scene, and spending time in nature.

Lauren Lepow | Psychiatry Resident and PhD student |

Lauren is a psychiatry resident at Mount Sinai in the NIMH-supported PhD+ neuroscience track. During college at Columbia, Lauren began studying the impact of the early environment on psychological development in the lab of Dr. Frances Champagne. She then completed medical school in Houston at McGovern- University of Texas learning about the intersection of neurology and psychiatry with Dr. Paul Schulz. Her eyes were opened to novel therapeutics at the NIMH Experimental Therapeutics & Pathophysiology Branch studying the mechanism of ketamine. Lauren is currently researching the psychological and biological mechanism of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy in the lab of Dr. Rachel Yehuda. With Dr. Alex Charney and Dr. Ben Glicksberg, she is learning Natural Language Processing with EHR data to better characterize suicidality. In the future, she plans to apply NLP to patient narratives to better understand pathways to healing.

Lauren is also passionate about biking, the never-ending discoveries to be made in NYC, and psychoanalysis.  

Lora Liharska| PhD student |

Bio coming soon!

Anina Lund | PhD Student |

Anina graduated from the University of California Berkeley in 2020 majoring in Cognitive Science and minoring in Music. In undergrad, she worked in Dr. Andrew Dillin’s lab performing research on the genetic and molecular mechanism that regulate aging and aging-related disease.

Anina is currently a fourth year Neuroscience PhD student co-mentored by Dr. Noam Beckmann, Dr. Alex Charney and Dr. Eric Nestler studying the integration of gene expression and imaging from human patients enrolled in the Living Brain Project.

Outside of lab, Anina is always up for coffee and going on adventures.


Nicole Simons | Blau Center Program Manager and PhD Candidate |

Nicole joined the lab in 2020 after her redeployment to Dr. Charney’s COVID-19 Biobank research team. Nicole manages the Blau Center for psychosis research and is also a PhD candidate in the lab. Her thesis work involves using a population-driven family-based study to examine the clinical and neurobiological effects of rare protein-truncating variants that confer risk for schizophrenia.

Nicole’s favorite part of her job is interacting with patients and their families. Her favorite parts of life include her family, sea turtles, mountains, vanilla candles, and summer.


Alissa Valentine | PhD Student |

Alissa (she/they) is currently a third year Neuroscience PhD student mentored by Dr. Isotta Landi and Dr. Alex Charney. Alissa studied Psychology, Neuroscience, and Health Studies at Haverford College before earning her master’s degree in Bioinformatics from Northeastern University. Alissa’s dissertation is on the topic of clinical bias detection in clinical notes of psychiatric patients, and her favorite research sits at the intersection of AI ethics and health disparity mitigation. Alissa is part of the oSTEM and 1stGen student groups and spends her free time taking photos with her analog camera, chilling in nature, building lego plants, and discovering new bakeries.

Steven Ascolillo | Program Manager |

Steven began working at Mount Sinai in 2019 as an Accessioning Specialist for the department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences. He transitioned to the Charney lab in June of 2020, after providing support to Dr. Charney and the Mount Sinai COVID Informatics Center during New York’s first COVID-19 surge. Steven now manages projects in the Charney Lab and the Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine.

Coming to New York from Massachusetts, Steven enjoys spending his free time at sporting events, whenever his teams are in town. He also enjoys spending time with his dog Nanook, seeing shows on Broadway, and enjoying everything else New York City has to offer!

Brian Fennessy | Bioinformatician II |

Brian joined the lab in February 2020 as an Associate Researcher. Originally from Ireland, he earned his B.Sc. in Biomedical Science (Pharmacology major) and M.Sc. in Biomedical Genomics at the University of Galway. During his Master’s, he studied copy number alterations associated with chemoresistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In the Charney lab, Brian investigates treatment resistant depression in the Mount Sinai BioMe biobank, the clinical utility of polygenic risk scores, along with contributing to other projects.

Outside of work, Brian is a dedicated runner, having completed nine marathons, stays active by frequenting the gym, loves animals, and enjoys exploring new dining experiences within the city.


Alice Hashemi | Clinical Research Coordinator II |

Alice joined the lab in August 2022 as a Clinical Research Coordinator and now manages the Living Brain Project. Alice graduated from Brandeis University in 2022 with a B.S. in Neuroscience. During her undergraduate career, she worked with researchers from Brandeis University and the University College of London, in order to study the efficacy of optogenetic devices as a tool for neuroscience research in animal models.

Outside of the lab, Alice loves rock climbing, traveling, and music.


Kate Keller | Clinical Research Coordinator I and Blau Center Marketing Liaison |

Kate joined the lab in February 2023 as a Clinical Research Coordinator in the Blau Center. She graduated with degrees in Psychology and Music for Vocal Performance from SUNY Geneseo In 2019. As a former CRC at the Seaver Autism Center at Mount Sinai, Kate worked alongside Dr. Jennifer Foss-Feig to develop a novel assessment scale for autism spectrum disorders, as well as work to identify biomarkers of autism via EEG and eye tracking methods. Kate is broadly interested in the neural correlates of mental illness, as well as the implementation of music and arts therapies in severely mentally ill populations.

Kate enjoys performing and writing music, going to shows, painting, and spending time outdoors.

Henry Rogers | Senior Clinical Research Coordinator |

Henry joined the lab in April 2023 to lead the psychiatry arm of Dr. Charney’s Mount Sinai Million Health Discoveries Program. Before joining the lab, Henry graduated with a B.Sc. in Psychology from the University of Surrey and worked at King’s College London collecting data and samples for research across a number of clinical populations.

Outside of work, Henry enjoys exploring NYC, watching sports and spending time with friends and family.

Renata Gonzalez Chong | Clinical Research Coordinator I |

Renata joined the lab in September 2023 as a Clinical Research Coordinator for the Latino Ancestry Genomic Psychiatry study. She graduated from Bowdoin College in 2023 with a B.S. in Neuroscience and a minor in Digital Computational Studies. Renata has experience working with labs from Bowdoin College, Columbia University, and the Spanish National Research Council, where she has developed skills in microscopy and histological methods. She is interested in neurotechnology and the ethical applications of AI in neuroscience.

Renata loves having jam sessions with friends, playing rugby in the park, and traveling.

Janice Morinigo | Lab Manager |

Bio coming soon!

Vibhuti Patel | Laboratory Supervisor |

Vibhuti joined the lab in July 2022 after obtaining her Master of Science degree in Biotechnology and Chemical Science from Roosevelt University in Chicago, IL. During her master’s, she worked on CRISPR/Cas9 and other molecular biology projects. In the lab, Vibhuti ensures the efficient and successful completion of multiple research projects and oversees wet-lab related experiments (e.g. PCR, genotype validation using sanger sequencing, electrophoresis, analyzing data, extraction, QC, and normalizing DNA). Vibhuti supervises and trains research associates in biospecimen processing and other wet lab work/assays.

Outside of work, Vibhuti loves exploring new foods, traveling, cooking, and spending time with family and friends.

Rachel Jackson | Research Associate |

Rachel joined Dr. Charney’s lab in January 2022 as a Research Associate for the RECOVER project. 

Originally from the south, she attended the University of Oklahoma where she studied chemistry and psychology. During her time in Oklahoma, she worked alongside pediatric specialists at A Better Chance Clinic to provide developmental and behavioral therapy for children exposed to drugs and/or alcohol before birth. Rachel came to New York in January 2020 and began her career with Mount Sinai as a Clinical Research Coordinator for the IBD Center, where she was a part of highly innovative and successful clinical trials aimed to help patients with Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. 

Outside of the lab, Rachel enjoys reading, crocheting, and learning to snowboard.


Alisha Aristel | Undergraduate Intern |

Alisha joined the lab in 2023 as a summer SURP student. She is currently a senior at Trinity College pursuing a major in Neuroscience with a specialization in the cellular/molecular track. In the lab, her first project involved developing a pipeline to identify carriers of rare genetic variants implicated in schizophrenia in a large whole-exome sequencing dataset. She plans to continue in the lab as an undergraduate intern to work on the Living Brain Project. Before joining the lab, she volunteered in the Goate lab and investigated the impact of APOE on Alzheimer’s disease with a particular emphasis on variations across different ancestral backgrounds using computational models.

Outside of school, Alisha finds joy in activities like yoga, music appreciation, and exploration.


  • Julie Park
  • Claudia Feng
  • MK Rieder
  • Hannah Silk
  • Emily Moya
  • Liam Cotter
  • Konstantinos Mouskas
  • Kishan Patel
  • Khalifa Stafford
  • Yuyang (Leo) Luo
  • Agathe de Pins
  • Lillian Wilkins
  • Kimia Ziafat
  • Dongjing Liu
  • Esther Cheng
  • Gavin Hynes
  • Niamh Mullins
  • Lars Kasarskis


  • Brian H. Kopell, M.D.
  • Navneet Dogra, PhD
  • Jeff W. Lichtman, M.D., PhD
  • Bojan Losic, PhD
  • Panagiotis Roussos, M.D., PhD
  • Eli Stahl, PhD
  • Laura Huckins, PhD
  • Xiaosi Gu, PhD
  • Ignacio Saez, PhD
  • Read Montague, PhD
  • Thompson, R.C., Simons, N.W., Wilkins, L. et al. Molecular states during acute COVID-19 reveal distinct etiologies of long-term sequelaeNat Med 29, 236–246 (2023).
  • Liu, D., Meyer, D., Fennessy, B. et al. Schizophrenia risk conferred by rare protein-truncating variants is conserved across diverse human populations. Nat Genet 55, 369–376 (2023).
  • Charney, A.W., Simons, N.W., Mouskas, K. et al. Sampling the host response to SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals under siege. Nat Med 26, 1157–1158 (2020).
  • PREPRINT: Liharska LE, Park YJ, Ziafat K, et al. A study of gene expression in the living human brain. Preprint. medRxiv. 2023;2023.04.21.23288916. Published 2023 Aug 1. doi:10.1101/2023.04.21.23288916